The nurse working in an outpatient pain clinic has the opportunity to teach a client with chronic back pain about nonpharmacological pain management. Which of the following would be most appropriate for the nurse to include when teaching? Select all that apply.

  • music
  • therapeutic massage
  • stretching exercises
  • relaxation
Numbers 1, 2, and 4 are correct.
Music, stretching exercises, and relaxation are proven nonpharmacological pain management techniques that the nurse is able to teach the client. Therapeutic massage for the purpose of pain management is performed by a licensed massage therapist.