The nurse working in an outpatient clinic has the opportunity to teach a client recently diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Which of the following topics would be most appropriate for the nurse to include? Select all that apply.
Anxiety increases sympathetic stimulation to the bowels, thereby increasing symptoms. Reducing anxiety will lessen the incidence of IBS episodes. The precise mechanism on how probiotics aid in IBS symptoms is not known, but it is thought to alter the bacteria found in the intestines. Ingestion of cold liquids will increase intestinal mobility that is contraindicated in IBS. Further, caffeine is considered a trigger food for symptoms of IBS. Fluid intake should be increased to compensate for fluid loss associated with frequent bowel elimination.