A college student presents at the emergency department after being thrown off a horse. Head injury with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is suspected. The nurse understands that late signs of increased ICP include which manifestations?

Select all that apply.
  1. seizures
  2. irritability
  3. restlessness
  4. disorientation
  5. severe headache
  6. nausea and vomiting
Numbers 1, 5, and 6 are correct.
Rationale: Late signs of increased ICP include seizures, severe headache, and nausea and vomiting (often projectile). Irritability, restlessness, and disorientation are early signs of increased ICP.