The nurse in a mental health facility is teaching a group of student nurses about schizophrenia. Which is true regarding the phases of schizophrenia?

Select all that apply.
  1. The average length of the prodromal phase in most clients is from 2 to 5 years.
  2. Clients in the premorbid phase tend to do well in school and have more outgoing personalities early in the disorder.
  3. In the active phase of schizophrenia, physiological causes such as drug abuse or a medical condition must be considered as a cause.
  4. During the residual phase, negative symptoms can remain and the client commonly has a flat affect and impaired role functioning.
  5. During the prodromal phase, treatment includes family interventions to improve coping, cognitive therapy, and therapeutic support for identified problems.
Numbers 1, 4, and 5 are correct.
Rationale: The prodromal phase may be brief, only a few weeks or months, but the average length according to most studies is 2 to 5 years. The residual phase usually follows the active schizophrenic stage, during which time negative symptoms can remain. Clients usually experience impaired role functioning and a flat affect. Treatment during the prodromal phase is focused on family coping, cognitive therapy, and support for identified problems. Clients in the premorbid phase tend to do poorly in school, have few or no friends, and avoid social activities. During the active phase, schizophrenia is not caused by drug abuse, medication interactions, or medical conditions.