A client’s serum sodium level is 113 mEq/L. The nurse would expect which findings upon assessment?

  1. headache, confusion, muscle weakness, fatigue
  2. hypertension, muscle cramps, respiratory depression
  3. cardiac arrhythmia, tetany, tachycardia
  4. confusion, nystagmus, tetany, hallucinations
Number 1 is correct.
Rationale: Normal sodium levels in an adult are between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia may include headache, confusion, muscle weakness, and fatigue. Seizures, loss of appetite, and irritability may also occur. The other symptom groups do not all fit with symptoms of hyponatremia.