A client diagnosed with lung cancer asks the nurse what the term M0 refers to. The nurse says that M0 means

  1. no distant metastasis present.
  2. distant metastasis present.
  3. distant metastasis cannot be evaluated.
  4. metastasis present only in immediate lymph nodes.
Number 1 is correct.
Rationale: M0 refers to no distant metastasis being present; the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. M1-4 indicates ascending degrees of metastatic involvement, including distant nodes. MX means metastasis cannot be evaluated.