The nurse is caring for a client who refuses to get out of bed. He tells the nurse, “I’m too tired to get up. I’m sick. I’m supposed to rest in the hospital.” For which complications of immobility does the nurse understand that the client is at risk? Select all that apply.

  • decreased appetite
  • urinary tract infection
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • muscular atrophy and foot drop
  • boredom, frustration, and anxiety
  • increased length of hospitalization
Numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are correct.
Prolonged immobilization can lead to urinary stasis, which can cause a urinary tract infection. Decreased cardiac circulation leads to orthostatic hypotension, which can cause dizziness upon standing. Lack of physical exercise can cause the muscles to atrophy, especially over a long period of time. Foot drop is another side effect of prolonged lack of exercise. Lack of mental stimulation causes boredom, frustration, and anxiety in some clients. In addition, respiratory effects of immobility can cause pneumonia. Complications of immobility can lead to longer hospital stays, particularly in clients who have multiple complications or comorbidities.