Drowning in very cold water causes a worse outcome for the client than drowning in warmer water.
Aspiration of both salt and fresh water increases surfactant in the lungs and leads to increased lung compliance.
If possible, the cause of drowning should be determined in order to know if the client suffered a medical condition such as a seizure that requires follow-up treatment.
Contaminants in the water such as microbes, mud, chemicals, and algae do not affect the degree of injury to the lungs.
Number 3 is correct.
Rationale: A medical condition such as a seizure or stroke may have been the underlying cause of the drowning event and would require further treatment once the client’s respiratory status is stabilized. Drowning in very cold water appears to have a protective effect by causing a reduction in cardiac output and reducing the cerebral metabolic rate, even with prolonged arrest. Aspiration of both salt and fresh water decreases surfactant to the lungs and leads to decreased lung compliance. Contaminants in the water such as microbes, mud, chemicals, and algae may play a significant role in how much damage to the lungs is sustained.